Islamic spirituality) and the negative stereotypes of Islam that were present in Britain. We find among the Zoroastrians, Hatim, the best known Sufi of his time. The Qadiriyyah order founded by Abdul Qadir Gilani whose tomb is at Baghdad. Numerous other traditions link him with the Sufis, and it was in Sufi style that he ordered his followers to respect all People of the Book, meaning those who respected their own sacred scriptures—a term later taken to include Zoroastrians. [16] Ibn al-‘Arif's disciple Ibn Qasi set up a group of religious followers in Portugal and built a monastery in Silves. [11] He lived from 883 to 931 and was born outside of Cordoba. II, Rizvi, Page 259). For other uses, see, Gholamali Haddad Adel, Mohammad Jafar Elmi, Hassan Taromi-Rad, Maribel Fierro, "The Polemic about the 'Karamat al-awaliya' and the Development of Sufism in al-Andalus,", A.M Mohamed Mackeen, "The Early History of Sufism in the Maghrib Prior to Al-Shadhili". "The conquest of India by Babur in 1526 gave considerable impetus to the Naqshbandiyya order" [6]. For the pre-modern era, see Vincent J. Cornell. The traditional view is that Sufism is the mystical school of Islam and had its beginnings in the first centuries following the life of the Prophet Mohammad. Sufism is the mystical branch of Islam. Thus great Sufis have appeared at different times and have founded schools of thought. Seyyedeh Dr. Nahid Angha. Central themes of Ibn 'Arabi's were the unity of all beings, or “wahdat al-wujud,” and also how God reflects God’s self in the world. [7] Quranic studies and jurisprudence (fiqh) were the accepted and promoted types of scholarship that shaped the region's beliefs and practices. pure people who meditated on a carpet. (from his introduction to Idries Shah's "The Sufis"). Two of the most notable are Kashf al-Mahjûb (Revelation of the Veiled) of Hujwiri, and Al-Risala al-Qushayriyya (The Message) of Al-Qushayri. In the fourth century of the hegira, some famous Gnostics defined Sufism as “a reality without form”. Several origins of the word 'sufi' have been suggested. The characteristic Sufi signature is found in widely dispersed literature from at least the second millennium B.C., and although their most obvious impact on civilization was made between the eighth and eighteenth centuries A.D., Sufis are still active as ever. [16] Ibn Tufail introduced the element of Sufism into this philosophical way of thinking. Others do not reject as incredible the Semitic tradition that Sufism's foundation is to be attributed to the teachings of Abraham. Sofi is used to designate the followers of Sufism, particularly by speakers of Persian and Turkish. It has been revealed more clearly and spread more widely from time to time as the world has evolved. For some, it reflects the influence of the mystical tradition in Cordoba attributed to Ibn Masarra. Bridging the gulf between the Islamic clerics and Sufis, Wali Ullah infused new vigour in practice of Naqshbandi Sufi order. In the 20th century some more modernist Muslims have called Sufism a superstitious religion that holds back Islamic achievement in the fields of science and technology.[39]. It was patronized by the Mughal rulers, as its founder was their ancestral Pir (Spiritual guide). See Introduction in "Great Sufi Poets of The Punjab" by R. M. Chopra, 1999, Iran Society, Calcutta. Origin of Sufism: It is generally believed that Sufism is derived from two Arabic words i.e. Introduction “Sufism” is the English term used to refer to mystical interpretations and practices of the Islamic religion. History of Sufism follows a long period of evolution since the time of the prophet. People of the same thought and point of view are drawn to each other with a tendency to form an exclusive circle. Sufism already had a long history when some teachers began to set up formal schools or orders (Tarika or Tariqah) in the early Middle Ages. [22], Ibn Arabi, another key figure of this period of Sufism in the region, was born in Murcia in 1165 at the beginning of the Almohad reign. [10], One figure in particular has often been credited as being the earliest introduction of Sufism to Spain: Ibn Masarra. Sufi Inayat Khan recognized the multi-religious roots of Sufism as well as its contemporary relevance for people of all faiths. Current Sufi orders include Ba 'Alawiyya, Chishti, Khalwati, Naqshbandi, Nimatullahi, Oveyssi, Qadria Noshahia, Qadiria Boutshishia, Qadiriyyah, Qalandariyya, Sarwari Qadiri, Shadhliyya, Tijaniyyah, and Suhrawardiyya. Ongoing efforts by both traditionally trained Muslim scholars and Western academics are making Al-Ghazali's works available in English translation for the first time,[5] allowing English-speaking readers to judge for themselves the compatibility of Islamic Law and Sufi doctrine. The word ‘Sufi’ derives its name from another Arabic word ‘Suf which means wool. This is because of the Sufi habit of wearing woolen coats, a designation of their initiation into the Sufi order. History and theology History and theology. [35], Sufism is popular in such African countries as Morocco and Senegal, where it is seen as a mystical expression of Islam. Some sources state that Sufism is the inner dimensions of the teachings of Muhammad whereas others say that Sufism emerged during the Islamic Golden Age from about the 8th to 10th centuries. Sufism suffered setbacks in North Africa during the colonial period; the life of the Algerian Sufi master Emir Abd al-Qadir is instructive in this regard. Orientalists proposed a variety of origin theories regarding Sufism, such as that it originated as an Aryan response to Semitic influence, Buddhism, Neo-Platonism, and Christian ascetism or Gnosticism. [3] According to the late medieval mystic Jami, Abd-Allah ibn Muhammad ibn al-Hanafiyyah (died c. 716) was the first person to be called a "Sufi".[4]. However Islamic scholars predating the Islamic Golden Age were referred to as Sufis, like Hasan of Basra. What makes them so difficult to discuss is that their mutual recognition cannot be explained in ordinary moral or psychological terms—whoever understands it is himself a Sufi. Mystical ideas are unintelligible to the generality of people. Yet according to Ali el-Hujwiri, an early authoritative Sufi writer, the Prophet Mohammed himself said: "He who hears the voice of the Sufi people and does not say aamin [Amen] is recorded in God's presence as one of the heedless." Sufism has gained an Oriental flavor from having been so long protected by Islam, but the natural Sufi may be as common in the West as in the East, and may come dressed as a general, a peasant, a merchant, a lawyer, a schoolmaster, a housewife, anything. The wise, whatever their faith, have always been able to meet each other beyond those boundaries of external forms and conventions, which are natural and necessary to human life, but which none the less separate humanity. [45][46] Hosein Nasr states that non-Islamic origin theories are false according to the point of view of Sufism. Hujwiri, in the eleventh century, presented several views of the origin of the term, “Sufi”. According to Carl W. Ernst the earliest figures of Sufism are Muhammad himself and his companions (Sahabah). When he was instructed by his teacher in 1907 to bring Sufism to the West, he articulated a "message of spiritual liberty" which reflects the universal, inclusive nature of Sufism. [5] In addition, the Suhrawardiyyah order, under the leadership of Abu Hafs Umar al-Suhrawardi (d. 1234), also bequeathed a number of teachings and institutions that were influential in shaping other order that emerged during later periods. "We friends" or "people like us" is how they refer to themselves, and they recognize one another by certain natural gifts, habits, qualities of thought. Sufi schools have indeed gathered around particular teachers, but there is no graduation and they exist only for the convenience of those who work to perfect their studies by close association with fellow Sufis. If they call Islam the "shell" of Sufism, this is because they believe Sufism to be the secret teaching within all religions. There is a significant social dimension to Islamic mysticism that must be explored if the picture is to be complete. It was a reality without a name which was practiced in the daily lives of the companions … Sufi Practice . Many people began to read and translate the works of philosophers such as Aristotle and Plato. This is the origin of the English phrase "whirling dervish." The essence of this order was insistence on rigid adherence to Sharia and nurturing love for the Prophet. Khwaja Razi-ud-Din Muhammad Baqi Billah whose tomb is in Delhi, introduced the Naqshbandi order in India. Of them the Chishti order is the most visible. [7] He belonged to what Spanish scholar of Islam, Miguel Asin Palacios, termed the "School of Almeria," so named for its geographical location. It has been revealed more clearly and spread more widely from time to time as the world has evolved. Sufis respect the rituals of religion insofar as these further social harmony, but broaden religion's doctrinal basis wherever possible and define its myths in a higher sense—for instance, explaining angels as representations of man's higher faculties. I think the difference most likely arises from the different views of the word’s origin. Early fuqaha in Spain were somewhat skeptical of philosophical thought as well as of Sufism. The chosen ones of God, the salt of the earth, who responded without hesitation to the call of Abraham, Moses, Jesus and Mohammed, were Sufis, and were not only simple followers of a religion but had insight into divine knowledge. Not any religionor cultural system. Neither body or soul.I belong to the beloved, have seen the twoworlds as one and that one call to and know,first, last, outer, inner, only thatbreath breathing human being. Sufism as a brother/sisterhood may be traced back as far as the period of Daniel. Origin of Sufism The origin of Sufism is difficult to trace, a riddle unsolved. While all this work was being done in the fields of religious sciences, essentially based on jurisprudence, Tradition (Hadith), theology and Qur’anic interpretation, the Sufi masters who concentrated mostly on the pure spiritual dimension of the Muhammadan Truth tried to draw attention to the essence of man’s being, the real nature of existence and the inner dynamics of man and the cosmos, directing attention to the … [21] Ibn Barrajan and Ibn al-‘Arif were both tried for heresy because their views conflicted with those of the Almoravids in power; however, Ibn Barrajan appears to have been more active in using Sufism as a means of challenging Quranic scholars and jurists. Akbar used to visit the shrine every year. [17] Also at this time, eastern Sufism was developing more as a communal movement, whereas that of the West (including in al-Andalus), it remained largely an individual pursuit. Wisdom is the ultimate power. 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